2- and 4-Terminal Method

A normal multimeter, equipped with 2 terminals, is a cheap and simple instrument for measuring voltage, current and resistance. However, the conventional 2-terminal method is not suitable for material evaluation. …

Conductivity (σ)

Conductivity (σ) is inversely related to volume resistivity. It is also called specific conductivity. The unit is S/cm. Conductivity σ [S/cm] =(1 / pv)